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浏览次数?span id="Lab_BrowseCount"></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="null"></div> <div class="B1_01"> <span class="TDContent"><span id="Lab_Content"><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="38806" data-color="#5c307d" data-custom="#5c307d" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 4px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(92, 48, 125);"><section data-bcless="darken" style="margin: 0px 0px -5px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 8px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: rgb(38, 20, 51); font-size: 14px; line-height: 20px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: rgb(92, 48, 125); font-size: 18px; line-height: 1.5em; background-color: rgb(254, 254, 254); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"> <a href="//www.nqqy.net/">双色球最近100期走势图</a> www.nqqy.net <strong class="" data-brushtype="text" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: inherit;">1 国务院机构改革:重新界定城市设计与城乡规划管理的关系?/strong></p></section></section></section><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">改革开放以来,国务院先后经历了8次重大政府机构改革,以提高行政效率,降低行政成本,完善组织结构并精干管理人员?018?月党的十九届三中全会通过新的《深化党和国家机构改革方案》,明确要“将国土资源部的职责,国家发展和改革委员会的组织编制主体功能区规划职责,住房和城乡建设部(以下简称“住建部”)的城乡规划管理职责,水利部的水资源调查和确权登记管理职责,农业部的草原资源调查和确权登记管理职责,国家林业局的森林、湿地等资源调查和确权登记管理职责,国家海洋局的职责,国家测绘地理信息局的职责整合?strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><sup style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);">1</span></sup></strong>,组建和设立中华人民共和国自然资源部,作为国务院组成部门?/span><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">方案公布后,一石激起千层浪,关于住建部下设的城市设计管理职能是调整转归自然资源部还是保留在住建部(?),一时间成为广为议论的话题。随着住建部的城乡规划管理职能机构外迁自然资源部的逐步落实,城市设计管理职能仍然保留在住建部成为可能。那么,原来紧密依托城乡规划的城市设计管理工作,在大幅度机构调整的影响下会带来怎样的定位变化和工作变革?城市设计与城市规划的关系将面临重构吗?城市设计管理会逐步远离法定规划和规划许可等传统管控工具吗?城市设计与建筑及建设活动的关联性会因此加强吗?显然,城市设计管理何去何从—这亟需通过综合研究、不断明晰和强化政府“顶层设计”,并合理顺应社会整体发展趋势,积极满足社会客观需求,重新寻找和定位我国城市设计管理的未来发展路径和方向?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190521/6369402550429400005331187.jpg" title="微信图片_20190521084515.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190521084515.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px; color: rgb(136, 136, 136);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">?1 <span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">国务院组成部门调整:组建自然资源?/span></strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">因此,本文从城市设计的基本功能与属性出发,重点分析改革开放以来我国城市设计管理的发展演进过程及其特点、特色,并对比相关国际经验和做法,结合我国城市设计管理可能与城乡规划管理关系重构的变革现状,探讨我国政府机构改革影响下的城市设计管理走向及相关的思考和建议?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="38806" data-color="#5c307d" data-custom="#5c307d" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 4px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(92, 48, 125);"><section data-bcless="darken" style="margin: 0px 0px -5px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 8px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: rgb(38, 20, 51); font-size: 14px; line-height: 20px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: rgb(92, 48, 125); font-size: 18px; line-height: 1.5em; background-color: rgb(254, 254, 254); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong class="" data-brushtype="text" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: inherit;">2 城市设计的基本功能与属性:“桥梁作用”与“看不见的网?/strong></p></section></section></section></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">现代城市设计作为“规划—建筑”之间的桥梁<sup style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">2</strong></span></sup>,是为了应对建筑设计专注和局限于单个项目,城市规划越来越倾向于土地利用、空间地理和产业经济的客观状况而诞生,并发展成为塑造城市三维空间环境的重要领域[1]。“桥梁作用”这一基本功能诉求深刻揭示了“城市设计”与“城乡规划”和“建筑设计”之间密不可分的内在联系(图2),反映到相关管理工作上,也表明了城市设计管理需要紧密“融合”和“链接”城乡规划管理与建筑设计管理的内在需求和运作倾向?/span><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190521/6369402551255300001516249.jpg" title="微信图片_20190521084520.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190521084520.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px; color: rgb(136, 136, 136);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">? <span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">城市设计作为城乡规划与建筑设计之间的桥梁</span></span></strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">尽管城市设计可以是直接进行工程建造的终极产品,但其作为“看不见的网[2]”的公共政策管控属性和“二次订单[3]”的过程约束属性相对主导。巴纳特指出城市设计是“一连串的行政决策过程和形体环境塑造过程[4]”,王世福认为“城市设计走向可操作性实际上就是城市设计成为公共政策化的专业技术的<span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; text-indent: 2em;">过程[5]”。因此,城市设计指引城市建设的综合作用需要通过设计规则建构(设计导则、设计规定等)和管理运作过程来实现,换句话说,城市设计的管理过程是实施城市设计的重中之重,决定着城市设计的落地与实际成效?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="38806" data-color="#5c307d" data-custom="#5c307d" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 4px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(92, 48, 125);"><section data-bcless="darken" style="margin: 0px 0px -5px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 8px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: rgb(38, 20, 51); font-size: 14px; line-height: 20px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: rgb(92, 48, 125); font-size: 18px; line-height: 1.5em; background-color: rgb(254, 254, 254); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong class="" data-brushtype="text" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: inherit;">3 我国现代城市设计管理的发展演进与运作特点</strong></p></section></section></section></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">我国的现代城市设计伴随改革开放和市场经济建设而生根发芽,至今已近40年,并在规模空前的城市建设活动和快速城市化进程中不断改进。城市设计在我国经历了几个重要阶段:①效仿苏联及建设动荡的前期准备阶段(1949?979年);②思潮与认识的引进与探索期?980?990年);③理论和实践的发展与繁荣期?991?000年);④全面推进下的困惑与反思期?000?015年);⑤中央城市工作会议后的调整与规范期?015年至今)等几个重要阶段?/span><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">据此,城市设计管理从一开始单一计划经济体制下政府对物质形体设计的直接立项和实施,演进到重点对国内、国际性城市设计实践项目的组织和开展上,进而发展到通过将城市设计成果纳入法定规划、转变为规划许可条件等实现城市设计落地的运作管控上,并在近期中央城市工作会议之后,随着《城市设计管理办法》的出台和住建部城市设计管理处室的设立,正式迈入城市设计管理制度建设的调整规范期?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">长期以来,城市设计管理在我国呈现出作为规划管理的组成部分、非正式制度约束为主、制度规范迈入初创、多尺度管控等实践特征,具有城市设计管理紧密依托和融入规划管理的显著特点—这也导致政府机构调整后,城市设计管理一旦“走出”城乡规划管理,将面临巨大运作变革和挑战。而城市设计管理与建筑设计之间的关系,则更多体现在“管”和“被管”的简单互动上,《建筑法》确定的建设管理内容未有对城市设计的具体涉及?/p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">3.1城市设计管理作为城乡规划管理的组成部分:从非正式约束走向制度规范初创</strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">城市设计管理融入城乡规划管理的运作模式在国际上具有广泛应用。在美国,城市设计技术性地介入区划是实现设计管控的重要手段,总体上形成了“以设计审查制度为核心,以设计导则为方向与依据,以区划法为依托”的管理模式;以“自由量裁”为特征的“规划许可”制度则是英国城市设计运作的重要依托,城市设计实施管理主要通过设计控制的审查体系来实现,对申请开发案的“城市设计审查”是保障城市空间环境品质的重要手段[6]?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">城市设计在我国具有非法定规划属性,20世纪90年以来,国家与地方层面的城市规划法律法规对于城市设计的表述和规定尽管屡经修改、删除或者变化,但也曲折地揭示了城市设计在我国被视为规划管理构成要素的重要事实,?991年颁布的《城市规划编制办法》明确提及,“在编制城市规划的各个阶段,都应运用城市设计的手法”,2006年施行的《城市规划编制办法》指出,控制性详细规划应当“提出各地块的建筑体量、体型、色彩等城市设计指导原则”?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">很长时间中,尽管城市设计管理已经逐步发展成为我国城乡规划管理的重要组成部分,但由于城市规划相关法律法规缺乏关于城市设计管理的具体可操作的运作规定,因此,我国城市设计的运作主要依靠行业内外共同遵循的一些非正式制度约束(包括行业共识、惯常做法等)在一定程度上得以有序开展—城市设计的编制、批复和实施在城市规划体系内展开,主要由各级规划主管部门负责。城市设计的具体实施则通过[6]:①将城市设计内容纳入法定城市规划;②对规划设计或者建筑设计方案进行城市设计审查;③将城市设计规定直接作为“一书两证”规划许可的条件等方式落地?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">2015 ?2月,中央城市工作会议明确指出,我国要“全面开展城市设计”,2016年国务院《关于进一步加强城市规划建设管理工作的若干意见》也指出,“城市设计是落实城市规划、指导建筑设计、塑造城市特色风貌的有效手段”?017年,依据《中华人民共和国城乡规划法》等法律法规制定的《城市设计管理办法》由住建部颁布并施行[7],这是我国城市设计运作法制化建设迈出的重要一步,标志着我国城市设计管理走向正式制度规范的开始。与此同时,一些地方性的城市设计管理规定也纷纷出台,?017?月印发的《浙江省城市设计管理办法》和《湖北省城市设计管理办法(试行)》?017?月施行的《山东省城市设计管理办法(试行)》?018?月公布的《中山市城市设计管理办法(试行稿)》等?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">尽管全国层面的《城市设计管理办法》初步界定了城市设计的主要职能、管理主体及其与法定规划相结合的管制路径等,但其仍侧重原则性导引,实际操作层面的具体管理方式亟待细化,其主要规定内容在于初步确定“总体城市设计”与“重点地区城市设计”的两级设计编制、审批主体;较为明确地提出重点地区城市设计通过控制性详细规划进行开发控制的途径;部分规定了单体建筑设计和景观、市政工程方案设计应符合城市设计要求,以出让方式提供国有土地使用权的开发和相关大型公共建筑项目等,应当将城市设计要求纳入规划条件等内容?/p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">3.2城市设计管理的多尺度管控:特色化的大尺度城市设计</strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">城市设计的空间对象具有广泛的尺度范畴,从建筑群体、街道街区、城市片区到城市乃至区域,都可以成为城市设计的工作对象。但是城市设计管理在不同国家和地区针对的重点尺度对象却各不相同,例如,在同样借助区划实现设计控制的德国和美国,德国强调通过建造规划(B-Plan)对中小尺度的具体建筑单体及其周边环境施加“细节性”设计管控,美国则重在通过“设计审查”结合城?街区等尺度的“城市设计导则”来推行更大尺度的“结构性”设计管理。造成这种现象的原因与不同国家和地区的发展阶段、国家地域的面积大小、国家管理采用的社会经济体制等息息相关?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">与美国类似,我国城市设计管理覆盖宏观、中观、微观等多个尺度,但针对大尺度城市和地区开展的城市设计及其管理已经成为我国城市设计区别其他国家的一大重要特色,这从《城市设计管理办法》设定的“总体城市设计”与“重点地区城市设计”两级结构便可窥豹一斑,其原因既有来自美国城市设计的影响,更是中国城镇化进程与城市建设的客观需求?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">一方面,我国早期对城市设计的概念内涵、编制方法、运行管理等方面的认识形成深受美国影响,自改革开放伊始,大量美国城市设计实践和著作就被翻译或引入国内[8],如至今仍然具有深刻影响力的城市尺度的“旧金山城市设计”,美国城市设计导则研究等[9-11];除此之外,建设部早?0世纪80年代就专门派出由郭恩章等学者组成的代表团前往美国考察和学习城市设计,林奇等美国建筑和规划专家代表团也?980年开始访华,由此带来的经验引介及引发的关注对之后国内城市设计实践及教育等的开展影响深远?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">更为重要的是,我国过?0多年的经济迅速腾飞、城镇化进程高速发展及大规模城市扩张等,带来的对结构性、形态性、引导性的大尺度城市设计的巨量需求,这促使其发展成为我国城市规划设计中的一个重要组成类型。从上海陆家嘴到北京CBD,郑州新城到鄂尔多斯康巴什,北川灾后重建到北京奥体公园,这种大规模城市设计在各地如火如荼地开展,设计范围动辄几平方公里、几十平方公里,甚至上百平方公里[12]。由于承担大尺度城市设计工作的技术人员和管理者等以“规划师”和具备“规划技能”的其他设计师为主,这就使得我国城市设计与城市规划的融合变得自然而然又不可或缺?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="38806" data-color="#5c307d" data-custom="#5c307d" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 4px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(92, 48, 125);"><section data-bcless="darken" style="margin: 0px 0px -5px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 8px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: rgb(38, 20, 51); font-size: 14px; line-height: 20px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: rgb(92, 48, 125); font-size: 18px; line-height: 1.5em; background-color: rgb(254, 254, 254); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong class="" data-brushtype="text" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: inherit;">4政府机构改革带来的领域关系重构与管理主体危机</strong></p></section></section></section></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">综上可以看出,新一轮的政府机构改革,一方面极大可能会对我国城市设计管理与城乡规划、建筑管理之间原有的从属、指导或依托等关系造成解构和重塑;另一方面更有可能带来城市设计管理主体转型和管理内容变更的全方位冲击。对于这些关键问题,笔者认为,在领域关系重构上,城市设计管理须与城乡规划管理设法保持“不离不弃”的持续性联系,并通过“上下衔接”来不断渗入和利用建筑设计管理工具;在主体定位上,城市设计需要通过适应新机构体系的法律法规建设来厘清城市设计管理主体的责任、义务和职权范围,在强化程序管理的同时,走向多元主体参与的“城市设计治理”之路。(??/span><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190521/6369402552313400006276600.jpg" title="微信图片_20190521084524.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190521084524.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-align: center; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">?3 <span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">基于顶层设计的城市设计管理制度建?/span></span></strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">4.1不离不弃:城市设计离不开城乡规划管理平台</strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">虽然在城市设计管理应该归属自然资源部以突出其规划管控职能,还是留在住建部形成设计管理与建设工程管理的二元互补体系上尚未定论,但是长期以来形成的规划与设计的历史联系、我国城市设计多尺度覆盖的特殊性以及设计管控的工具需求和平台依托等,都要求城市设计管理不能因此而脱离城乡规划。相反地,城市设计,特别是大尺度的城市设计,通过法定规划和规划许可管理加以落实的做法短期内很难改变,需进一步梳理相互间的内在联系并强化协作途径,城市总体规划和总体城市设计、控制型详细规划和重点地区城市设计等之间的先后秩序、从属关系以及工作协调方式还需进一步明确?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">清晰具体的设计管控规定的缺失,使得我国的城市设计与城乡规划、建筑管理等相关制度间的关系调整和未来发展,仍然存在很大的不确定性,并可能持续造成城市设计管理在依托对象与作用工具上的模糊。因此,在国家机构改革的新契机下,政府需要不断加强城市设计主管机构与职能建设的顶层设计,进一步厘清城市规划与城市设计、建筑设计的整合运作途径,使城市设计长期以来受体制机制约束而产生的与相关规划的内容重叠、融合困难、实施权责不明等问题逐步破解?/p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">4.2上下衔接:城市设计强化与建筑设计和建设活动的管理链接</strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">如前所述,城市设计管理在我国实现了与城市规划管理的积极融合,但却一直是“高高在上”地指导建筑设计与建设活动的上层级管理活动,与相关建筑活动形成了相对简单的“管”与“被管”关系,这导致规划管理与城市建设两大环节存在脱节,通过建设管理推进和实施城市设计管理的路径和方式在我国至今空白,建筑类法律法规对城市设计的规定也未有涉足,因此我国城市设计管理亟需强化与建筑设计管理的对接,特别是机构改革若将城市设计管理归属到改组后的住建部的“建筑”与“工程”管理范畴之后?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">放眼亚洲,韩国的城市设计管理同为规划管理和建设管理的组成内容,这有利于真正发挥城市设计作为“规划—建筑”间桥梁的上下衔接作用。韩国政府于1980?月颁布的《建筑法》中,第8条第2项明确规定了关于城市中心建筑的特别条例,且在11月该条目的修订中首次引入了城市设计的编制标准。基于此,韩国的城市规划关注城市整体,城市设计侧重具体场所的特性,建筑设计关注个别建筑内容,形成了各有侧重和相互支持的城市建设指导体系。从国内来看?009年天津公布的《天津市规划建筑导则汇编》涵盖了规划篇(建筑特色、色彩、高度控制导则)、建筑篇(建筑顶部、高层建筑玻璃幕墙、围墙设计控制导则)和设施篇(街道家具、店招牌匾整修设计导则),这是推动城市设计与规划、建筑实现整合指引的积极尝试?/p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">4.3主体定位:城市设计法制法规建设的更新与推?/strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">当前的全国性规范文件《城市设计管理办法》第五条规定,城市设计管理的主导者仍是自上而下的各级“城乡规划政府”:国务院城乡规划主管部门负责指导和监督全国城市设计工作;省、自治区城乡规划主管部门负责指导和监督本行政区域内城市设计工作;城市、县人民政府城乡规划主管部门负责本行政区域内城市设计的监督管理。若按此规定,随着城乡规划管理职能迁入自然资源部,该办法确定的城市设计管理主体可能不再可行,这就带来城市设计管理主体需要重新定位以及通过管理办法更新、持续的城市设计法制法规建设来准确设定城市设计管理工作内容及责任主体的强烈诉求?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">值得注意的是,相比于相对稳定的法律法规建设来说,技术性规范、原则性意见或规定性程序等政策的制定,可以更加及时、灵活并准确反映当前诉求,对法律法规起到有效的空缺填补和规则辅助等作用。因此,我国城市设计管理领域应该鼓励国家和地方结合最新国家战略出台各类政策导引,使设计管控目标与国家倡导达成一致,并给予地方政府更多自主决策、因地制宜的行政空间?/p><p style="margin-top: 10px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0em; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(112, 48, 160);"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">4.4设计治理:迈向多元参与的设计管控综合体系</strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">作为提升城市空间品质及促进社会经济进步的重要工具,城市设计已经发展成为现代国家治理不可或缺的组成部分?016年,伦敦大学 (UCL)巴特雷特学院卡莫纳教授率先提出“设计治理(Design Governance)”的新理念,倡导建立由政府、专家、投资者、市民等多元主体构成的行动与决策体系,利用各种“正式”与“非正式”治理工具来推进城市设计运作[13]。过去,以设计技术人员为核心,依据政府计划和任务委托对设计地段开展“精英式”设计以服务于人民的做法早已不适应新形势的需要,随着市场经济的深入发展以及民主意识的觉醒,城市设计需要综合处理开发商、公众、政府、专业技术人员及其他第三方等的利益诉求,并通过程序立法保障这些多元角色参与设计控制环节的权利和途径,从而将城市设计发展成为全社会参与的治理工具,实现设计过程的共治共享?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">虽然我国还没有通过城市设计法制化建设,以确保公众和各类非政府组织等参与设计治理的合法性与必要性,但目前已有很多地方政府开始着手尝试引入更多治理主体的城市设计管控方式,如广州、北京等地逐步建立了“地区责任城市设计师/城市规划师”制度[14-15],通过向体制外聘请设计专家来协助地方的设计审查、方案咨询、过程协调等工作;又如上海的“缤纷社区”、广州的“微改造”等诸多更新活动都在借助自下而上的社区营造,来组织、培育和引导公众参与,并不断拓宽和保障社会参与空间设计的途径和渠道?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="38806" data-color="#5c307d" data-custom="#5c307d" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 4px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(92, 48, 125);"><section data-bcless="darken" style="margin: 0px 0px -5px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-bottom-width: 8px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-color: rgb(38, 20, 51); font-size: 14px; line-height: 20px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: rgb(92, 48, 125); font-size: 18px; line-height: 1.5em; background-color: rgb(254, 254, 254); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong class="" data-brushtype="text" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; border-color: rgb(92, 48, 125); color: inherit;">5 结语:通过顶层设计明确城市设计管理的未来发?/strong></p></section></section></section></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; text-indent: 2em; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">综上所述,本次政府机构改革带给城市设计管理的影响明显而又深刻,甚至从根本上改变或动摇了我国近40年来发展形成的关于城市设计管控的一些基本认识及其城市设计融入城乡规划管理等正式和非正式机制。因此,结合我国城市设计制度建设长期存在的法律法规不完备、政策导引匮乏、与建设管理对接不足、制度创新无保障、多元角色缺少参与和无法有效发挥作用等困扰,我国的城市设计应该借助机构改革契机,通过充分的“顶层设计”真正明确城市设计的职责作用、管理主体和实施方式等,以实现城市设计管理的强制性制?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">变迁[16]。这种制度变迁应该突出和强化城市设计作为城乡规划与建筑设计之间桥梁的本质作用,继续保持城市设计与城乡规划管理的紧密联系,并增强其与建筑设计和建设管理的有效衔接,以顺应城市设计管理可能归属住建部的“建筑”与“工程”管理的变革定位?/span><img class="rich_pages" data-copyright="0" data-ratio="1" data-s="300,640" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_jpg/p3ZgGMnSO5cLwPazhI8Zk74pm0a59PWBiaIXNrRFs7Kib5LEWvukjT968hfBqGTmINmSSpoibETAniclyEs3p9zXsw/640?wx_fmt=jpeg" data-type="jpeg" data-w="1280" _width="20px" src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_jpg/p3ZgGMnSO5cLwPazhI8Zk74pm0a59PWBiaIXNrRFs7Kib5LEWvukjT968hfBqGTmINmSSpoibETAniclyEs3p9zXsw/640?wx_fmt=jpeg&tp=webp&wxfrom=5&wx_lazy=1&wx_co=1" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; height: auto !important; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; text-align: center; width: 20px !important; visibility: visible !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">注释</strong></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">1 2018??8日党的十九届三中全会通过《深化党和国家机构改革方案》,2018?月印发?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">2 伴随城市设计内涵和外延的不断拓展,城市设计已不再仅承担简单的桥梁作用,城市设计教育与生态、环境、经济等更多学科领域不断进行着交叉和渗透?/p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">参考文?/strong></p><p><section class="" data-tools="135编辑? data-id="72469" data-color="#f5f5f4" data-custom="#f5f5f4" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; line-height: 25.6px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"><section data-width="100%" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; height: 300px; width: 539px; display: inline-block; color: inherit;"><section style="margin: 0px; padding: 10px 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(123, 123, 111); border-color: rgb(169, 169, 169); background: rgb(245, 245, 244);"><section data-autoskip="1" class="" data-style="clear: none; margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; line-height: 1.5em; text-align: left; color: inherit; border-color: rgb(239, 112, 96);" style="margin: 0px; padding: 15px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: inherit; border-color: rgb(245, 245, 244);"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: none; min-height: 1em; line-height: 1.5em; color: inherit; border-color: rgb(245, 245, 244); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">[1] Francis T. Mind the gap[J]. The Planner, 1988, 74(3): 11-15.</p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: none; min-height: 1em; line-height: 1.5em; color: inherit; border-color: rgb(245, 245, 244); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">[2] Richard T. Law in urban design and planning: The invisible web[M]. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988.</p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: none; min-height: 1em; line-height: 1.5em; color: inherit; border-color: rgb(245, 245, 244); box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;">[3] George R V. A procedural explanation for contemporary urban design [J]. 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